Embeddedness within transnational networks influences how countries govern LGBT+ communities. Research commonly highlights how pro-LGBT+ networks enable the expansion of rights; however, increased transnational coordination between anti-LGBT+ actors means network embeddedness also leads to policy backlash. Therefore, an important question to ask is: why are countries differentially embedded within these opposing networks to begin with? Moreover, does embeddedness in one network influence embeddedness in the other over time? To answer these questions, I develop original datasets of transnational pro- and anti-LGBT+ networks from 1990 to 2018. Using cross-lagged and dynamic panel models, results reveal that there is indeed an interdependent relationship where opposing networks mutually engage, or "follow,"one another; however, these patterns vary across region. These results give insights into how countries exist in tension between these opposing networks and can help illuminate where expansion and backlash may transpire. While focused on LGBT+ networks, these findings give insights into tensions over (il)liberalism and gender justice occurring within the international community.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Sociology and Political Science