Operation Mechanism of n-Type Organic Electronic Metabolite Sensors

Victor Druet, Prem D. Nayak, Anil Koklu, David Ohayon, Adel Hama, Xingxing Chen, Maximilian Moser, Iain McCulloch, Sahika Inal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


The integration of n-type (electron-transporting) polymers with oxidase enzymes has allowed building high-performance organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) based metabolite sensors. Yet, the operation mechanism of these devices is poorly understood. Here, the process is investigated for the conversion of metabolite oxidation to electrical current in an n-type organic electrochemical transistor (n-OECT). By monitoring oxygen (O2), hydrogen peroxide, and pH changes in the electrolyte as well as the potential of each electrical contact of the n-OECT during glucose detection, light is shed on the physical phenomena occurring at the polymer-enzyme interface. It is shown that the n-type film performs O2 reduction reaction in its doped state and that the n-OECT characteristics are sensitive to O2. A correlation is found between the consumption of electrolyte-dissolved O2 and the generation of n-OECT current during the metabolite oxidation. The results demonstrate how the sensitivity of a polymer to O2, species known to deteriorate the performance of many semiconductor devices, becomes a feature to exploit in sensor applications. The importance of in operando analysis of the electrolyte composition and the terminal potentials is highlighted for understanding the operation mechanism of bioelectronic devices and for sensor design and materials development.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2200065
JournalAdvanced Electronic Materials
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2022
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials


  • enzymes
  • metabolite sensors
  • n-type semiconducting polymers
  • organic electrochemical transistors
  • oxygen


Dive into the research topics of 'Operation Mechanism of n-Type Organic Electronic Metabolite Sensors'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this