U(1) gauge theory on R4 is known to possess an electric-magnetic duality symmetry that inverts the coupling constant and extends to an action of SL(2, Z). In this paper, the duality is studied on a general four-manifold and it is shown that the partition function is not a modular-invariant function but transforms as a modular form. This result plays an essential role in determining a new low-energy interaction that arises when N=2 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory is formulated on a four-manifold; the determination of this interaction gives a new test of the solution of the model and would enter in computations of the Donaldson invariants of four-manifolds with b2+≤1. Certain other aspects of abelian duality, relevant to matters such as the dependence of Donaldson invariants on the second Stieffel-Whitney class, are also analyzed.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- General Mathematics
- General Physics and Astronomy