On emerging scarred surfaces for the einstein vacuum equations

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We follow up our work [4] concerning the formation of trapped surfaces. We provide a considerable extension of our result there on pre-scared surfaces to allow for the formation of a surface with multiple pre-scared angular regions which, together, can cover an arbitrarily large portion of the surface. In a forthcoming paper we plan to show that once a significant part of the surface is pre-scared, it can be additionally deformed to produce a bona-fide trapped surface.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1007-1031
Number of pages25
JournalDiscrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems
Issue number3
StatePublished - Nov 2010

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Analysis
  • Discrete Mathematics and Combinatorics
  • Applied Mathematics


  • Black hole
  • Characteristic
  • Double null foliation
  • Einstein equations
  • Energy estimates
  • Expansion
  • Null second fundamental form
  • Ricci coefficients
  • Scarred surface
  • Trapped surface
  • Vacuum


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