Nonlinear second order electromagnetic gyrokinetic theory for a tokamak plasma

A. V. Dudkovskaia, H. R. Wilson, J. W. Connor, D. Dickinson, F. I. Parra

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


The steep plasma pressure gradient that forms at the edge of the high confinement, H-mode regime of tokamak operation provides free energy to drive electromagnetic micro-instabilities that are widely believed to influence the transport processes in this so-called pedestal region. This high pressure gradient also provides a high current density (bootstrap current), known to influence ballooning mode stability and to be important for driving kink modes in the ideal magneto-hydrodynamic plasma model (so-called peeling-ballooning modes). Furthermore, efficient, steady state future tokamak power plants must operate with a large bootstrap current in the core and especially concerning spherical tokamaks, confinement will be influenced by electromagnetic turbulence. To accommodate these important situations, conventional electromagnetic gyrokinetic theory is extended to incorporate neoclassical effects in the equilibrium drives, allowing B ϑ ∼ B 0 (B 0 is the confining magnetic field, and B ϑ is its poloidal component). This provides a global gyrokinetic model that self-consistently captures the consequences of large bootstrap current fractions on the equilibrium distribution functions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number045010
JournalPlasma Physics and Controlled Fusion
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Nuclear Energy and Engineering
  • Condensed Matter Physics


  • bootstrap current
  • gyrokinetic theory
  • kink modes
  • peeling ballooning modes
  • spherical tokamak plasma
  • tokamak pedestal


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