We study the nonequilibrium steady state of the driven-dissipative Bose-Hubbard model with Kerr nonlinearity. Employing a mean-field decoupling for the intercavity hopping J, we find that the steep crossover between low and high photon-density states inherited from the single cavity transforms into a gas-liquid bistability at large cavity-coupling J. We formulate a van der Waals-like gas-liquid phenomenology for this nonequilibrium setting and determine the relevant phase diagrams, including a new type of diagram where a lobe-shaped boundary separates smooth crossovers from sharp, hysteretic transitions. Calculating quantum trajectories for a one-dimensional system, we provide insights into the microscopic origin of the bistability.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics