Next-Generation IoT Devices: Sustainable Eco-Friendly Manufacturing, Energy Harvesting, and Wireless Connectivity

Hamed Rahmani, Darshan Shetty, Mahmoud Wagih, Yasaman Ghasempour, Valentina Palazzi, Nuno B. Carvalho, Ricardo Correia, Alessandra Costanzo, Dieff Vital, Federico Alimenti, Jeff Kettle, Diego Masotti, Paolo Mezzanotte, Luca Roselli, Jasmin Grosinger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations


This invited paper presents potential solutions for tackling some of the main underlying challenges toward developing sustainable Internet-of-things (IoT) devices with a focus on eco-friendly manufacturing, sustainable powering, and wireless connectivity for next-generation IoT devices. The diverse applications of IoT systems, such as smart cities, wearable devices, self-driving cars, and industrial automation, are driving up the number of IoT systems at an unprecedented rate. In recent years, the rapidly-increasing number of IoT devices and the diverse application-specific system requirements have resulted in a paradigm shift in manufacturing processes, powering methods, and wireless connectivity solutions. The traditional cloud-centering IoT systems are moving toward distributed intelligence schemes that impose strict requirements on IoT devices, e.g., operating range, latency, and reliability. In this article, we provide an overview of hardware-related research trends and application use cases of emerging IoT systems and highlight the enabling technologies of next-generation IoT. We review eco-friendly manufacturing for next-generation IoT devices, present alternative biodegradable and eco-friendly options to replace existing materials, and discuss sustainable powering IoT devices by exploiting energy harvesting and wireless power transfer. Finally, we present (ultra-)low-power wireless connectivity solutions that meet the stringent energy efficiency and data rate requirements of future IoT systems that are compatible with a batteryless operation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)237-255
Number of pages19
JournalIEEE Journal of Microwaves
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2023
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Condensed Matter Physics


  • Antennas
  • CMOS
  • MTT 70th Anniversary Special Issue
  • RFID
  • backscattering
  • biodegradable
  • energy harvesting
  • green substrates
  • harmonic transponders
  • rectifier
  • recyclable electronics
  • sustainable IoT
  • system-on-chip
  • wireless power transmission


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