Crystal calorimeters have a long history of pushing the frontier on high-resolution electromagnetic (EM) calorimetry for photons and electrons. We explore in this paper major innovations in collider detector performance that can be achieved with crystal calorimetry when longitudinal segmentation and dual-readout capabilities are combined with a new high EM resolution approach to Particle Flow in multi-jet events, such as e+e+ → HL events in all-hadronic final-states at Higgs factories. We demonstrate a new technique for pre-processing 0 momenta through combinatoric di-photon pairing in advance of applying jet algorithms. This procedure significantly reduces 0 photon splitting across jets in multi-jet events. The correct photon-to-jet assignment efficiency improves by a factor of about 3 when the EM resolution is improved from 15 to 3%/√E. In addition, the technique of bremsstrahlung photon recovery significantly improves electron momentum measurements. A high EM resolution calorimeter increases the Z boson recoil mass resolution in Higgstrahlung events for decays into electron pairs to 80% of that for muon pairs. We present the design and optimization of a highly segmented crystal detector concept that achieves the required energy resolution of 3%/√E, and a time resolution better than 30 ps providing exceptional particle identification capabilities. We demonstrate that, contrary to previous detector designs that suffered from large neutral hadron resolution degradation from one interaction length of crystals in front of a sampling hadron calorimeter, the implementation of dual-readout on crystals permits to achieve a resolution better than 30%/√E 2% for neutral hadrons. Our studies find that the integration of crystal calorimetry into future Higgs factory collider detectors can open new perspectives by yielding the highest level of combined EM and neutral hadron resolution in the PFA paradigm.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Mathematical Physics
- Calorimeter methods
- Particle identification methods
- Performance of High Energy Physics Detectors