Neutrinos from the primary proton-proton fusion process in the Sun

G. Bellini, Jay Burton Benziger, D. Bick, G. Bonfini, D. Bravo, B. Caccianiga, L. Cadonati, Frank Calaprice, A. Caminata, P. Cavalcante, A. Chavarria, A. Chepurnov, D. D'Angelo, S. Davini, A. Derbin, A. Empl, A. Etenko, K. Fomenko, D. Franco, F. GabrieleCristiano Galbiati, S. Gazzana, C. Ghiano, M. Giammarchi, M. Göger-Neff, A. Goretti, M. Gromov, C. Hagner, E. Hungerford, Aldo Ianni, Andrea Ianni, V. Kobychev, D. Korablev, G. Korga, D. Kryn, M. Laubenstein, B. Lehnert, T. Lewke, E. Litvinovich, F. Lombardi, P. Lombardi, L. Ludhova, G. Lukyanchenko, I. MacHulin, S. Manecki, W. Maneschg, S. Marcocci, Q. Meindl, E. Meroni, M. Meyer, L. Miramonti, M. Misiaszek, M. Montuschi, P. Mosteiro, V. Muratova, L. Oberauer, M. Obolensky, F. Ortica, K. Otis, M. Pallavicini, L. Papp, L. Perasso, A. Pocar, G. Ranucci, A. Razeto, A. Re, A. Romani, N. Rossi, R. Saldanha, C. Salvo, S. Schönert, H. Simgen, M. Skorokhvatov, O. Smirnov, A. Sotnikov, S. Sukhotin, Y. Suvorov, R. Tartaglia, G. Testera, D. Vignaud, R. B. Vogelaar, F. Von Feilitzsch, H. Wang, J. Winter, M. Wojcik, A. Wright, M. Wurm, O. Zaimidoroga, S. Zavatarelli, K. Zuber, G. Zuzel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

153 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In the core of the Sun, energy is released through sequences of nuclear reactions that convert hydrogen into helium. The primary reaction is thought to be the fusion of two protons with the emission of a low-energy neutrino. These so-called pp neutrinos constitute nearly the entirety of the solar neutrino flux, vastly outnumbering those emitted in the reactions that follow. Although solar neutrinos from secondary processes have been observed, proving the nuclear origin of the Sunâ energy and contributing to the discovery of neutrino oscillations, those from proton-proton fusion have hitherto eluded direct detection. Here we report spectral observations of pp neutrinos, demonstrating that about 99 per cent of the power of the Sun, 3.84 × 10 33 ergs per second, is generated by the proton-proton fusion process.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)383-386
Number of pages4
JournalNature
Volume512
Issue number7515
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 28 2014

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Solar System
Protons
Helium
Hydrogen

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General

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Bellini, G., Benziger, J. B., Bick, D., Bonfini, G., Bravo, D., Caccianiga, B., ... Zuzel, G. (2014). Neutrinos from the primary proton-proton fusion process in the Sun. Nature, 512(7515), 383-386. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13702
Bellini, G. ; Benziger, Jay Burton ; Bick, D. ; Bonfini, G. ; Bravo, D. ; Caccianiga, B. ; Cadonati, L. ; Calaprice, Frank ; Caminata, A. ; Cavalcante, P. ; Chavarria, A. ; Chepurnov, A. ; D'Angelo, D. ; Davini, S. ; Derbin, A. ; Empl, A. ; Etenko, A. ; Fomenko, K. ; Franco, D. ; Gabriele, F. ; Galbiati, Cristiano ; Gazzana, S. ; Ghiano, C. ; Giammarchi, M. ; Göger-Neff, M. ; Goretti, A. ; Gromov, M. ; Hagner, C. ; Hungerford, E. ; Ianni, Aldo ; Ianni, Andrea ; Kobychev, V. ; Korablev, D. ; Korga, G. ; Kryn, D. ; Laubenstein, M. ; Lehnert, B. ; Lewke, T. ; Litvinovich, E. ; Lombardi, F. ; Lombardi, P. ; Ludhova, L. ; Lukyanchenko, G. ; MacHulin, I. ; Manecki, S. ; Maneschg, W. ; Marcocci, S. ; Meindl, Q. ; Meroni, E. ; Meyer, M. ; Miramonti, L. ; Misiaszek, M. ; Montuschi, M. ; Mosteiro, P. ; Muratova, V. ; Oberauer, L. ; Obolensky, M. ; Ortica, F. ; Otis, K. ; Pallavicini, M. ; Papp, L. ; Perasso, L. ; Pocar, A. ; Ranucci, G. ; Razeto, A. ; Re, A. ; Romani, A. ; Rossi, N. ; Saldanha, R. ; Salvo, C. ; Schönert, S. ; Simgen, H. ; Skorokhvatov, M. ; Smirnov, O. ; Sotnikov, A. ; Sukhotin, S. ; Suvorov, Y. ; Tartaglia, R. ; Testera, G. ; Vignaud, D. ; Vogelaar, R. B. ; Von Feilitzsch, F. ; Wang, H. ; Winter, J. ; Wojcik, M. ; Wright, A. ; Wurm, M. ; Zaimidoroga, O. ; Zavatarelli, S. ; Zuber, K. ; Zuzel, G. / Neutrinos from the primary proton-proton fusion process in the Sun. In: Nature. 2014 ; Vol. 512, No. 7515. pp. 383-386.
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abstract = "In the core of the Sun, energy is released through sequences of nuclear reactions that convert hydrogen into helium. The primary reaction is thought to be the fusion of two protons with the emission of a low-energy neutrino. These so-called pp neutrinos constitute nearly the entirety of the solar neutrino flux, vastly outnumbering those emitted in the reactions that follow. Although solar neutrinos from secondary processes have been observed, proving the nuclear origin of the Sun{\^a} energy and contributing to the discovery of neutrino oscillations, those from proton-proton fusion have hitherto eluded direct detection. Here we report spectral observations of pp neutrinos, demonstrating that about 99 per cent of the power of the Sun, 3.84 × 10 33 ergs per second, is generated by the proton-proton fusion process.",
author = "G. Bellini and Benziger, {Jay Burton} and D. Bick and G. Bonfini and D. Bravo and B. Caccianiga and L. Cadonati and Frank Calaprice and A. Caminata and P. Cavalcante and A. Chavarria and A. Chepurnov and D. D'Angelo and S. Davini and A. Derbin and A. Empl and A. Etenko and K. Fomenko and D. Franco and F. Gabriele and Cristiano Galbiati and S. Gazzana and C. Ghiano and M. Giammarchi and M. G{\"o}ger-Neff and A. Goretti and M. Gromov and C. Hagner and E. Hungerford and Aldo Ianni and Andrea Ianni and V. Kobychev and D. Korablev and G. Korga and D. Kryn and M. Laubenstein and B. Lehnert and T. Lewke and E. Litvinovich and F. Lombardi and P. Lombardi and L. Ludhova and G. Lukyanchenko and I. MacHulin and S. Manecki and W. Maneschg and S. Marcocci and Q. Meindl and E. Meroni and M. Meyer and L. Miramonti and M. Misiaszek and M. Montuschi and P. Mosteiro and V. Muratova and L. Oberauer and M. Obolensky and F. Ortica and K. Otis and M. Pallavicini and L. Papp and L. Perasso and A. Pocar and G. Ranucci and A. Razeto and A. Re and A. Romani and N. Rossi and R. Saldanha and C. Salvo and S. Sch{\"o}nert and H. Simgen and M. Skorokhvatov and O. Smirnov and A. Sotnikov and S. Sukhotin and Y. Suvorov and R. Tartaglia and G. Testera and D. Vignaud and Vogelaar, {R. B.} and {Von Feilitzsch}, F. and H. Wang and J. Winter and M. Wojcik and A. Wright and M. Wurm and O. Zaimidoroga and S. Zavatarelli and K. Zuber and G. Zuzel",
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Bellini, G, Benziger, JB, Bick, D, Bonfini, G, Bravo, D, Caccianiga, B, Cadonati, L, Calaprice, F, Caminata, A, Cavalcante, P, Chavarria, A, Chepurnov, A, D'Angelo, D, Davini, S, Derbin, A, Empl, A, Etenko, A, Fomenko, K, Franco, D, Gabriele, F, Galbiati, C, Gazzana, S, Ghiano, C, Giammarchi, M, Göger-Neff, M, Goretti, A, Gromov, M, Hagner, C, Hungerford, E, Ianni, A, Ianni, A, Kobychev, V, Korablev, D, Korga, G, Kryn, D, Laubenstein, M, Lehnert, B, Lewke, T, Litvinovich, E, Lombardi, F, Lombardi, P, Ludhova, L, Lukyanchenko, G, MacHulin, I, Manecki, S, Maneschg, W, Marcocci, S, Meindl, Q, Meroni, E, Meyer, M, Miramonti, L, Misiaszek, M, Montuschi, M, Mosteiro, P, Muratova, V, Oberauer, L, Obolensky, M, Ortica, F, Otis, K, Pallavicini, M, Papp, L, Perasso, L, Pocar, A, Ranucci, G, Razeto, A, Re, A, Romani, A, Rossi, N, Saldanha, R, Salvo, C, Schönert, S, Simgen, H, Skorokhvatov, M, Smirnov, O, Sotnikov, A, Sukhotin, S, Suvorov, Y, Tartaglia, R, Testera, G, Vignaud, D, Vogelaar, RB, Von Feilitzsch, F, Wang, H, Winter, J, Wojcik, M, Wright, A, Wurm, M, Zaimidoroga, O, Zavatarelli, S, Zuber, K & Zuzel, G 2014, 'Neutrinos from the primary proton-proton fusion process in the Sun', Nature, vol. 512, no. 7515, pp. 383-386. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13702

Neutrinos from the primary proton-proton fusion process in the Sun. / Bellini, G.; Benziger, Jay Burton; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, Frank; Caminata, A.; Cavalcante, P.; Chavarria, A.; Chepurnov, A.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Empl, A.; Etenko, A.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, Cristiano; Gazzana, S.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Göger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Gromov, M.; Hagner, C.; Hungerford, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lehnert, B.; Lewke, T.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; MacHulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Marcocci, S.; Meindl, Q.; Meroni, E.; Meyer, M.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montuschi, M.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Otis, K.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Rossi, N.; Saldanha, R.; Salvo, C.; Schönert, S.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Vignaud, D.; Vogelaar, R. B.; Von Feilitzsch, F.; Wang, H.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wright, A.; Wurm, M.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

In: Nature, Vol. 512, No. 7515, 28.08.2014, p. 383-386.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Neutrinos from the primary proton-proton fusion process in the Sun

AU - Bellini, G.

AU - Benziger, Jay Burton

AU - Bick, D.

AU - Bonfini, G.

AU - Bravo, D.

AU - Caccianiga, B.

AU - Cadonati, L.

AU - Calaprice, Frank

AU - Caminata, A.

AU - Cavalcante, P.

AU - Chavarria, A.

AU - Chepurnov, A.

AU - D'Angelo, D.

AU - Davini, S.

AU - Derbin, A.

AU - Empl, A.

AU - Etenko, A.

AU - Fomenko, K.

AU - Franco, D.

AU - Gabriele, F.

AU - Galbiati, Cristiano

AU - Gazzana, S.

AU - Ghiano, C.

AU - Giammarchi, M.

AU - Göger-Neff, M.

AU - Goretti, A.

AU - Gromov, M.

AU - Hagner, C.

AU - Hungerford, E.

AU - Ianni, Aldo

AU - Ianni, Andrea

AU - Kobychev, V.

AU - Korablev, D.

AU - Korga, G.

AU - Kryn, D.

AU - Laubenstein, M.

AU - Lehnert, B.

AU - Lewke, T.

AU - Litvinovich, E.

AU - Lombardi, F.

AU - Lombardi, P.

AU - Ludhova, L.

AU - Lukyanchenko, G.

AU - MacHulin, I.

AU - Manecki, S.

AU - Maneschg, W.

AU - Marcocci, S.

AU - Meindl, Q.

AU - Meroni, E.

AU - Meyer, M.

AU - Miramonti, L.

AU - Misiaszek, M.

AU - Montuschi, M.

AU - Mosteiro, P.

AU - Muratova, V.

AU - Oberauer, L.

AU - Obolensky, M.

AU - Ortica, F.

AU - Otis, K.

AU - Pallavicini, M.

AU - Papp, L.

AU - Perasso, L.

AU - Pocar, A.

AU - Ranucci, G.

AU - Razeto, A.

AU - Re, A.

AU - Romani, A.

AU - Rossi, N.

AU - Saldanha, R.

AU - Salvo, C.

AU - Schönert, S.

AU - Simgen, H.

AU - Skorokhvatov, M.

AU - Smirnov, O.

AU - Sotnikov, A.

AU - Sukhotin, S.

AU - Suvorov, Y.

AU - Tartaglia, R.

AU - Testera, G.

AU - Vignaud, D.

AU - Vogelaar, R. B.

AU - Von Feilitzsch, F.

AU - Wang, H.

AU - Winter, J.

AU - Wojcik, M.

AU - Wright, A.

AU - Wurm, M.

AU - Zaimidoroga, O.

AU - Zavatarelli, S.

AU - Zuber, K.

AU - Zuzel, G.

PY - 2014/8/28

Y1 - 2014/8/28

N2 - In the core of the Sun, energy is released through sequences of nuclear reactions that convert hydrogen into helium. The primary reaction is thought to be the fusion of two protons with the emission of a low-energy neutrino. These so-called pp neutrinos constitute nearly the entirety of the solar neutrino flux, vastly outnumbering those emitted in the reactions that follow. Although solar neutrinos from secondary processes have been observed, proving the nuclear origin of the Sunâ energy and contributing to the discovery of neutrino oscillations, those from proton-proton fusion have hitherto eluded direct detection. Here we report spectral observations of pp neutrinos, demonstrating that about 99 per cent of the power of the Sun, 3.84 × 10 33 ergs per second, is generated by the proton-proton fusion process.

AB - In the core of the Sun, energy is released through sequences of nuclear reactions that convert hydrogen into helium. The primary reaction is thought to be the fusion of two protons with the emission of a low-energy neutrino. These so-called pp neutrinos constitute nearly the entirety of the solar neutrino flux, vastly outnumbering those emitted in the reactions that follow. Although solar neutrinos from secondary processes have been observed, proving the nuclear origin of the Sunâ energy and contributing to the discovery of neutrino oscillations, those from proton-proton fusion have hitherto eluded direct detection. Here we report spectral observations of pp neutrinos, demonstrating that about 99 per cent of the power of the Sun, 3.84 × 10 33 ergs per second, is generated by the proton-proton fusion process.

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Bellini G, Benziger JB, Bick D, Bonfini G, Bravo D, Caccianiga B et al. Neutrinos from the primary proton-proton fusion process in the Sun. Nature. 2014 Aug 28;512(7515):383-386. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13702