Neutrino-driven Winds in Three-dimensional Core-collapse Supernova Simulations

Tianshu Wang, Adam Burrows

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


In this paper, we analyze the neutrino-driven winds that emerge in 12 unprecedentedly long-duration 3D core-collapse supernova simulations done using the code Fornax. The 12 models cover progenitors with zero-age main-sequence mass between 9 and 60 solar masses. In all our models, we see transonic outflows that are at least 2 times as fast as the surrounding ejecta and that originate generically from a proto−neutron star surface atmosphere that is turbulent and rotating. We find that winds are common features of 3D simulations, even if there is anisotropic early infall. We find that the basic dynamical properties of 3D winds behave qualitatively similarly to those inferred in the past using simpler 1D models, but that the shape of the emergent wind can be deformed, very aspherical, and channeled by its environment. The thermal properties of winds for less massive progenitors very approximately recapitulate the 1D stationary solutions, while for more massive progenitors they deviate significantly owing to aspherical accretion. The Y e temporal evolution in winds is stochastic, and there can be some neutron-rich phases. Though no strong r-process is seen in any model, a weak r-process can be produced, and isotopes up to 90Zr are synthesized in some models. Finally, we find that there is at most a few percent of a solar mass in the integrated wind component, while the energy carried by the wind itself can be as much as 10%-20% of the total explosion energy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number114
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number2
StatePublished - Sep 1 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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