Neural and molecular mechanisms of microcognition in Limax

Satoshi Watanabe, Yutaka Kirino, Alan Gelperin

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

45 Scopus citations


Various non-mammalian model systems are being explored in the search for mechanisms of learning and memory storage of sufficient generality to contribute to the understanding of mammalian learning mechanisms. The terrestrial mollusk Limax maximus is one such model system in which mammalian-quality learning has been documented using odors as conditioned stimuli. The Limax odor information-processing circuits incorporate several system design features also found in mammalian odor-processing circuits, such as the use of cellular and network oscillations for making odor computations and the use of nitric oxide to control network oscillations. Learning and memory formation has been localized to a particular central circuit, the procerebral lobe, in which selective gene activation occurs through odor learning. Since the isolated Limax brain can perform odor learning in vitro, the circuits and synapses causally linked to learning and memory formation are assessable for further detailed analysis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)633-642
Number of pages10
JournalLearning and Memory
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2008

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Cognitive Neuroscience


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