Neural étendue expander for ultra-wide-angle high-fidelity holographic display

Ethan Tseng, Grace Kuo, Seung Hwan Baek, Nathan Matsuda, Andrew Maimone, Florian Schiffers, Praneeth Chakravarthula, Qiang Fu, Wolfgang Heidrich, Douglas Lanman, Felix Heide

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Holographic displays can generate light fields by dynamically modulating the wavefront of a coherent beam of light using a spatial light modulator, promising rich virtual and augmented reality applications. However, the limited spatial resolution of existing dynamic spatial light modulators imposes a tight bound on the diffraction angle. As a result, modern holographic displays possess low étendue, which is the product of the display area and the maximum solid angle of diffracted light. The low étendue forces a sacrifice of either the field-of-view (FOV) or the display size. In this work, we lift this limitation by presenting neural étendue expanders. This new breed of optical elements, which is learned from a natural image dataset, enables higher diffraction angles for ultra-wide FOV while maintaining both a compact form factor and the fidelity of displayed contents to human viewers. With neural étendue expanders, we experimentally achieve 64 × étendue expansion of natural images in full color, expanding the FOV by an order of magnitude horizontally and vertically, with high-fidelity reconstruction quality (measured in PSNR) over 29 dB on retinal-resolution images.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2907
JournalNature communications
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Chemistry
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Physics and Astronomy


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