N-Type polymeric mixed conductors for all-in-one aqueous electrolyte gated photoelectrochemical transistors

Latifah Almulla, Victor Druet, Christopher E. Petoukhoff, Wentao Shan, Nisreen Alshehri, Sophie Griggs, Yazhou Wang, Maryam Alsufyani, Wan Yue, Iain McCulloch, Frédéric Laquai, Sahika Inal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


An organic photoelectrochemical transistor (OPECT) is an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) that utilizes light to toggle between ON and OFF states. The current response to light and voltage fluxes in aqueous media renders the OPECT ideal for the development of next-generation bioelectronic devices, including light-assisted biosensors, light-controlled logic gates, and artificial photoreceptors. However, existing OPECT architectures are complex, often requiring photoactive nanostructures prepared through labor-intensive synthetic methods, and despite this complexity, their performance remains limited. In this study, we develop aqueous electrolyte-compatible optoelectronic transistors using a single n-type semiconducting polymer. The n-type film performs multiple tasks: (1) gating the channel, (2) generating a photovoltage in response to light, and (3) coupling and transporting cations and electrons in the channel. We systematically investigate the photoelectrochemical properties of a range of n-type polymeric mixed conductors to understand the material requirements for maximizing phototransistor performance. Our findings contribute to the identification of crucial material and device properties necessary for constructing high-performance OPECTs with simplified design features and a direct interface with biological systems.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2937-2949
Number of pages13
JournalMaterials Horizons
Issue number12
StatePublished - Mar 26 2024
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Materials Science
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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