N-Doping improves charge transport and morphology in the organic non-fullerene acceptor O-IDTBR

Alexandra F. Paterson, Ruipeng Li, Anastasia Markina, Leonidas Tsetseris, Sky Macphee, Hendrik Faber, Abdul Hamid Emwas, Julianna Panidi, Helen Bristow, Andrew Wadsworth, Derya Baran, Denis Andrienko, Martin Heeney, Iain McCulloch, Thomas D. Anthopoulos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Molecular doping has been shown to improve the performance of various organic (opto)electronic devices. When compared to p-doped systems, research into n-doped organic small-molecules is relatively limited, primarily due to the lack of suitable dopants and the often encountered unfavourable microstructural effects. These factors have prevented the use of n-doping in a wider range of existing materials, such as non-fullerene acceptors (NFAs), that have already shown great promise for a range of (opto)electronic applications. Here, we show that several different molecular n-dopants, namely [1,2-b:2′,1′-d]benzo[i][2.5]benzodiazocine potassium triflate adduct (DMBI-BDZC), tetra-n-butylammonium fluoride (TBAF) and 4-(2,3-dihydro-1,3-dimethyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-N,N-dimethylbenzenamine (N-DMBI), can be used to n-dope the molecular semiconductor O-IDTBR, a promising NFA, and increase the electron field-effect mobility to >1 cm2 V-1 s-1. By combining complementary experimental techniques with computer simulations of doping and charge carrier dynamics, we show that improved charge transport arises from synergistic effects of n-type doping and morphological changes. Specifically, a new, previously unreported dopant-induced packing orientation results in one of the highest electron mobility values reported to-date for an NFA molecule. Overall, this work highlights the importance of dopant-semiconductor interactions and their impact on morphology, showing that dopant-induced molecular packing motifs may be generic and a key element of the charge transport enhancement observed in doped organics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4486-4495
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Materials Chemistry C
Issue number13
StatePublished - Apr 7 2021
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Chemistry
  • Materials Chemistry


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