Mutual Synchronization for Power Generation and Beam-Steering in CMOS with On-Chip Sense Antennas Near 200 GHz

Kaushik Sengupta, Ali Hajimiri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Scopus citations

Abstract

In this paper, we introduce the concept of near-field synchronization as an efficient, scalable, and robust method to synchronize a 2-D array of mutually coupled oscillators for beam-forming at frequencies above fmax of a technology. The method employs an array of on-chip sense antennas to probe electromagnetic near-fields of the on-chip radiators. These sense antennas are then coupled to each other appropriately through a network that establishes the synchronized state as the lowest energy state. A circuit-electromagnetic co-design methodology is employed to demonstrate beam-steering near 200 GHz with a synchronized 2×2 array. Each element of the array is a traveling-wave oscillator with the nonlinear active devices selectively radiating its second harmonic through the same electromagnetic structure. The beam-pattern can be varied by more than 70° in both azimuth and elevation. The chip is realized in 65-nm bulk CMOS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number7174564
Pages (from-to)2867-2876
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Volume63
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2015

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Radiation
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Keywords

  • Beam-forming
  • CMOS
  • beam-steering
  • millimeter wave
  • near-field
  • on-chip antenna
  • power combining
  • power generation
  • substrate modes
  • terahertz

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