Multiphase SPH analysis of a breaking wave impact on elevated structures with vertical and inclined walls

Krisna Adi Pawitan, Maria Garlock, Shengzhe Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Elevated structures are prevalent along shorelines that are susceptible to storm surge flooding to improve coastal resilience. In this work, we explore the influence of front wall inclination on the pressures and forces attracted by an elevated structure in response to extreme wave impact. Multiphase smoothed-particle hydrodynamics was used to examine a typical two-story building 6 m high and 10 m long with three different frontal wall inclinations impinged by a single breaking wave propagating landwards (from left to right). Relative to a vertical surface, both positive (clockwise) and negative (counterclockwise) inclinations of the front wall altered breaking wave pressures depending on the structure's position relative to the still-water level (SWL). When the bottom of the structure is located below the SWL (negative air gap), a positive inclination decreased breaking wave loads by up to 21 %, while a negative inclination may result in 50 % higher pressure maxima. However, for a structure elevated above the SWL (positive air gap), negative and positive inclinations witnessed reductions to the pressure maxima of 35 % and 10 %, respectively, when compared with a vertical surface.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number103832
JournalApplied Ocean Research
StatePublished - Jan 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ocean Engineering


  • Breaking wave impacts
  • Computational fluid dynamics
  • Dualsphysics
  • Elevated structure
  • Smoothed particles hydrodynamics (SPH)
  • Wave structure interaction


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