Multidimensional hybrid modulations for ultrahigh-speed optical transport

Ivan B. Djordjevic, Lei Xu, Ting Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


From Shanon's theory, we know that information capacity is a logarithmic function of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) but a linear function of the number of dimensions. By increasing the number of dimensions D, we can dramatically improve the spectral efficiency. At the same time, in D-dimensional space (D>2), for the same average symbol energy, we can increase the Euclidean distance between signal constellation points compared with the conventional in-phase (I)/quadrature (Q) 2-D signal space. The 4-D space, with two phase coordinates per polarization, has already been intensively studied. To satisfy the ever-increasing bandwidth demands, in this paper, we propose the D-dimensional signaling (Df>4) by employing all available degrees of freedom for transmission over a single carrier including amplitude, phase, polarization, and orbital angular momentum (OAM). The proposed modulation scheme can be called hybrid $D$-dimensional modulation as it employs all available degrees of freedom. The proposed hybrid 8-D coded-modulation scheme outperforms its 4-D counterpart by 3.97 dB at a bit error rate (BER) of 10 -8 while outperforming its corresponding polarization-division- multiplexed (PDM) iterative polar quantization (IPQ)-based counterpart by even a larger margin of 6.41 dB (at the same BER). The improvement of the proposed scheme for two amplitude levels per dimension and D = 8 over conventional PDM 64-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) is indeed a striking 8.28 dB at a BER of 2× 10-8.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number6059467
Pages (from-to)1030-1038
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Photonics Journal
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2011
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


  • coded-modulation
  • hybrid modulations
  • low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes
  • Multimode fibers (MMFs)


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