Monandrous social organization of pigtailed langurs (Simias concolor) in the Pagai Islands, Indonesia

Richard R. Tenaza, Agustin Fuentes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


Between June 1986 and October 1992, in 3 periods totaling 12 months, we studied social organization of pigtailed langurs (Simias concolor)in the Pagai Islands, Indonesia. With one possible exception, all of 20 family groups contained only 1 adult male each. Nine of them contained only 1 adult female, and 11 contained ≥2 adult females. Mean group size is 4.1 individuals. Home ranges varied from 7 to 20 ha, and population density averages 21 animals/km 2 . Simias concolor is sexually dimorphic{rightwards two-headed arrow with tail}n a museum sample males average 29% heavier than females, and their canine teeth are on average nearly twice the length of female canines. Combined data from several studies indicate that 60% of S. concolor groups contain an adult pair plus young, and 40% are multifemale groupings. We sggest that any 1-male mating system that comprises a mixture of 1-female and multifemale groups in the same population should be termed monandry.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)295-310
Number of pages16
JournalInternational Journal of Primatology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 1995
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Animal Science and Zoology


  • Mentawai Islands
  • Simias concolor
  • home range
  • leadership
  • monandry
  • multifemale groups
  • one-female groups
  • one-male groups
  • pigtailed langur
  • population density
  • sex ratio
  • sexual dimorphism
  • unmated males


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