Molecular dopants: Tools to control the electronic structure of metal halide perovskite interfaces

Fengyu Zhang, Hannah L. Smith, Antoine Kahn

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


In the standard configurations of metal halide perovskite solar cell, the active layer, or absorber, follows a p-i-n or n-i-p electronic structure that is designed to enhance the separation and extraction of photo-induced charge carriers. The control of the Fermi level position across the film, between electron and hole transport layers, is therefore of paramount importance. Direct localized doping in metal halide perovskites being still elusive, the design of n-i-p and p-i-n structures has so far relied predominantly on surface and interface doping of the perovskite as well as on the control of the work function of the substrate and transport layers on which, or between which, the absorber is being placed. We provide here a short review of that work, emphasizing the fundamental studies of electronic structure performed on systems modified with organic molecular dopants. The review starts with a justification for the effectiveness of interface doping, based on the ability to move the Fermi level across the gap of the perovskite. We then review work done on the deposition of molecular oxidants and reductants on perovskite surfaces, including the mitigation of the surface states, and the impact of these dopants on energy level alignment with substrate and charge transport layers. The second part of the review focuses on the use of molecular dopants to either modify the work function of electron or hole transport layers to establish the boundary conditions for a p-i-n or n-i-p structure, or to enhance the conductivity of these layers in order to facilitate charge carrier extraction. Final considerations are also given on recent work on bulk doping of the perovskite layer with molecular dopants.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number041301
JournalApplied Physics Reviews
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 1 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Physics and Astronomy


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