Modification of organic interfaces: From molecular level measurements to injection characteristics

I. G. Hill, D. Milliron, J. Schwartz, A. Kahn

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Ultra-violet and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and current-voltage measurements were used to investigate the fundamental mechanisms responsible for the improvement of hole injection between modified indium-tin-oxide (ITO) surfaces and the hole-transport layer (HTL) of an organic light emitting diode. Two ITO surface modification techniques were investigated: oxygen-plasma treatment and deposition of an ultra-thin organic interlayer between the ITO and the HTL. We demonstrate that the improvement in injection is due to an increase in surface work function of ITO mediated by the presence of an oxygen radical in the first case, and to the presence of an intermediate energy level between the ITO Fermi level and the HTL highest occupied molecular orbital in the second.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)276-282
Number of pages7
JournalProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
StatePublished - 1999
EventProceedings of the 1999 Organic Light-Emitting Materials and Devices III - Denver, CO, USA
Duration: Jul 19 1999Jul 21 1999

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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