Modelling of thermal stresses and distortions in X-ray masks employing the embedded absorber structure

Nadim I. Maluf, Steven Y. Chou, R. Fabian, W. Pease

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


The distortions that arise from thermal stresses in X-ray masks which employ the embedded absorber structure are modelled and analyzed. By using a quasi two-dimensional model, both in-plane and out-of-plane distortions were characterized and their dependence on the fractional absorber coverage was calculated. These distortions were found to be large when the absorber was initially deposited at a high temperature; however they can be greatly reduced by adding a buffer layer between the absorber and membrane. The Young's modulus and the linear expansion coefficient of this buffer layer are chosen such that the mask distortions are compensated for. Without the buffer layer, the shear and peeling stresses at the absorber-membrane interface were found to increase exponentially with distance near the absorber edges and may cause fatigue. These results were found in agreement with computer simulations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)230-240
Number of pages11
JournalProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
StatePublished - May 1 1990
Externally publishedYes
EventElectron-Beam, X-Ray, and Ion-Beam Technology: Submicrometer Lithographies IX 1990 - San Jose, United States
Duration: Mar 4 1990Mar 8 1990

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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