Modeling the Spectral Energy Distribution of the Active Galactic Nucleus inside NGC 4395

Hector Afonso G. Cruz, Andy D. Goulding, Jenny E. Greene

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


We study the broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) of the prototypical low-mass active galactic nucleus (AGN) in NGC 4395. We jointly model the optical through mid-IR SED with a combination of galaxy and AGN light, and find that on arcsecond scales the AGN dominates at most wavelengths. However, there is still some ambiguity about emission from the galaxy, owing partially to the strong short-term variability of the black hole. We investigate the use of smooth- and clumpy-torus models in order to disentangle the nuclear IR emission, as well as exploring the use of poloidal wind emission to account for the blue spectral slope observed in the near-IR. Even when simultaneously fitting the full optical-IR spectral range, we find that degeneracies still remain in the best-fit models. We conclude that high-spatial-resolution and wider-wavelength coverage with the JWST is needed to understand the mid-IR emission in this complex, highly variable object, which is the best nearby example to provide a blueprint to finding other low-mass AGNs via their mid-IR emission in the future.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number78
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number1
StatePublished - Sep 1 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


Dive into the research topics of 'Modeling the Spectral Energy Distribution of the Active Galactic Nucleus inside NGC 4395'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this