A study was specifically designed to find the optimal doping conditions relevant to polycrystalline electrode material. The study proposed a general model to explain how fundamental electronic and structural properties of rutile TiO2 correlate with increasing Nb incorporation. An optimal doping level of 3%, with 6 orders of magnitude increase in the conductivity on doping was found. Grinding and heating processes were repeated until phase-pure powder X-ray diffraction (pXRD) rutile patterns were obtained for each mixture. Polycrystals were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to determine the oxidation states of Nb and Ti for each doping level of Nb-TiO2.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Chemical Engineering(all)
- Materials Chemistry