Microfluidics integrated n-type organic electrochemical transistor for metabolite sensing

Anil Koklu, David Ohayon, Shofarul Wustoni, Adel Hama, Xingxing Chen, Iain McCulloch, Sahika Inal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations


The organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) can translate biochemical binding events between a recognition unit and its analyte into an electrical signal. We present an OECT comprising an n-type (electron transporting) conjugated polymer-based channel and lateral gate electrode functionalized with the enzyme, glucose oxidase. The device is integrated with a microfluidic system for real-time glucose monitoring in a flow-through manner. The n-type polymer has direct electrical communication with glucose oxidase, allowing glucose detection while surpassing hydrogen peroxide production. The microfluidic-integrated OECT shows superior features compared to its microfluidic-free counterpart, including higher current and transconductance values as well as improved signal-to-noise (SNR) ratios, which enhances the sensor sensitivity and its detection limit. Thanks to the low noise endowed by the integrated microfluidics, the gate current changes upon metabolite recognition could be resolved, revealing that while the relative changes in gate and drain currents are similar, the drain current output has a higher SNR. This is the first demonstration of the integration of a microfluidic system with an n-type accumulation mode OECT for real-time enzymatic metabolite detection. The microfluidic-integrated design provides new insights into the mechanisms leading to high sensor sensitivities, crucial for the development of portable and autonomous lab-on-a-chip technologies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number129251
JournalSensors and Actuators, B: Chemical
StatePublished - Feb 15 2021
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Instrumentation
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Materials Chemistry


  • Metabolite sensing
  • Microfluidics
  • n-type conjugated polymers
  • Organic bioelectronics
  • Organic electrochemical transistors


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