As electrochemical engineering and materials science improved in the two centuries from the demonstration of the Volta pile, the accessibility, distribution, and reliability of the bond forming and breaking process (that is, charging and discharging) has improved tremendously, but the dimension of the bond has not changed. This chapter examines the fundamental reasons of this challenge, and determines the limit of energy that may be practically stored in small applications, as well as the limits of power that may be transferred. It also examines the boundary conditions for the ideal battery. For applications where energy harvesting is feasible for the average power required but not sufficient for peak power, electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC), or supercapacitors have been demonstrated to be effective short-term storage devices with effectively infinite cycle life. For volumetrically constrained systems, any improvement to a standard battery can be generally applied to a smaller system.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC)
- Ideal battery
- Micro energy storage
- Volume-constrained systems