Mental Health of Transgender and Gender Diverse Youth

Natalie M. Wittlin, Laura E. Kuper, Kristina R. Olson

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


Transgender and gender diverse (TGD) children and adolescents are an increasingly visible yet highly stigmatized group. These youth experience more psychological distress than not only their cisgender, heterosexual peers but also their cisgender, sexual minority peers. In this review, we document these mental health disparities and discuss potential explanations for them using a minority stress framework. We also discuss factors that may increase and decrease TGD youth’s vulnerability to psychological distress. Further, we review interventions, including gender-affirming medical care, that may improve mental health in TGD youth. We conclude by discussing limitations of current research and suggestions for the future.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)207-232
Number of pages26
JournalAnnual Review of Clinical Psychology
StatePublished - May 9 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Clinical Psychology


  • adolescents
  • children
  • mental health
  • transgender
  • youth


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