Memory biases for gender-typed images in a gender-diverse group of children

Selin Gülgöz, Daniel J. Alonso, Kristina R. Olson, Carol Lynn Martin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Self-socialization accounts of gender development suggest that children attend more to people of their own gender, activities associated with their own gender and stereotype-consistent examples in their environment. Evidence comes from research showing children's memory biases for such stimuli. This study sought to replicate these memory biases in 367 6- to 11-year-old transgender, cisgender and nonbinary children. Children were shown stereotype-consistent and counter-stereotypical images related to feminine- and masculine-typed activities performed by girls/women or boys/men. Results showed that transgender and cisgender children showed better recall for activities related to their own gender than the other gender. Neither group showed better recall for own-gender characters, and transgender children better recalled other-gender characters. None of the three groups better recalled stereotype-consistent than counter-stereotypical images in probed recall, although all groups showed better recall for counter-stereotypical than stereotype-consistent images in free recall. These findings provide partial support for self-socialization accounts of gender development.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalBritish Journal of Developmental Psychology
StateAccepted/In press - 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Developmental Neuroscience


  • children
  • gender cognition
  • gender development
  • gender diversity


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