The effects of calphostin A on cytoplasmic calcium levels, receptor-mediated calcium release, and membrane input resistance were measured in neuroblastoma cells. Calphostin A is a lipophilic, light-sensitive perylenequinone that generates singlet oxygen when illuminated. It inhibits the activity of protein kinase C (IC50 = 250 nM), but only in the presence of light. Phorbol esters normally attenuate carbachol-evoked calcium release. This effect was blocked by simultaneous exposure to light and calphostin A (40 nM) for 30 min. At higher doses (0.5-1 μM) calphostin A also approximately doubled the resting calcium level and decreased cell input resistance by 51%. These toxic effects did not occur in the dark or after preincubation with the antioxidant α-tocopherol. These data support the hypothesis that the calphostins act by partitioning into the membrane and producing singlet oxygen and endoperoxides which then irreversibly modify protein kinase C and other membrane proteins and lipids.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- General Neuroscience
- Free radical
- Kinase inhibitors
- Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor
- Protein kinase C
- Singlet oxygen