The mechanism of phenoxyimine (FI)−cobalt-catalyzed C(sp2)-C(sp3) Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling was studied using a combination of kinetic measurements and catalytic and stoichiometric experiments. A series of dimeric (FI)cobalt(II) bromide complexes, [(4-CF3PhFI)CoBr]2, [(4-OMePhFI)CoBr]2, and [(2,6-diiPrPhFI)CoBr]2, were isolated and characterized by 1H and 19F NMR spectroscopies, solution and solid-state magnetic susceptibility, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, and diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy (DOSY). One complex, [(4-CF3PhFI)CoBr]2, was explored as a single-component precatalyst for C(sp2)-C(sp3) Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling. Addition of potassium methoxide to [(4-CF3PhFI)CoBr]2 generated the corresponding (FI)cobalt(II) methoxide complex as determined by 1H and 19F NMR and EPR spectroscopies. These spectroscopic signatures were used to identify this compound as the resting state during catalytic C(sp2)-C(sp3) coupling. Variable time normalization analysis (VTNA) of in situ catalytic 19F NMR spectroscopic data was used to establish an experimental rate law that was first-order in a (FI)cobalt(II) precatalyst, zeroth-order in the alkyl halide, and first-order in an activated potassium methoxide-aryl boronate complex. These findings are consistent with turnover-limiting transmetalation that occurs prior to activation of the alkyl bromide electrophile. The involvement of boronate intermediates in transmetalation was corroborated by Hammett studies of electronically differentiated aryl boronic esters. Together, a cobalt(II)/cobalt(III) catalytic cycle was proposed that proceeds through a “boronate”-type mechanism.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Colloid and Surface Chemistry