Cancer metastasis, or the development of secondary tumors in distant tissues, accounts for the vast majority of fatalities in patients with breast cancer. Breast cancer cells show a striking proclivity to metastasize to distinct organs, specifically the lung, liver, bone, and brain, where they face unique environmental pressures and a wide variety of tissue-resident cells that together create a strong barrier for tumor survival and growth. As a consequence, successful metastatic colonization is critically dependent on reciprocal cross talk between cancer cells and host cells within the target organ, a relationship that shapes the formation of a tumor-supportive microenvironment. Here, we discuss the mechanisms governing organ-specific metastasis in breast cancer, focusing on the intricate interactions between metastatic cells and specific niche cells within a secondary organ, and the remarkable adaptations of both com-partments that cooperatively support cancer growth. More broadly, we aim to provide a framework for the microenvironmental prerequisites within each distinct metastatic site for successful breast cancer metastatic seeding and outgrowth.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology