Mechanisms of cement hydration

Jeffrey W. Bullard, Hamlin M. Jennings, Richard A. Livingston, Andre Nonat, George W. Scherer, Jeffrey S. Schweitzer, Karen L. Scrivener, Jeffrey J. Thomas

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1461 Scopus citations


The current state of knowledge of cement hydration mechanisms is reviewed, including the origin of the period of slow reaction in alite and cement, the nature of the acceleration period, the role of calcium sulfate in modifying the reaction rate of tricalcium aluminate, the interactions of silicates and aluminates, and the kinetics of the deceleration period. In addition, several remaining controversies or gaps in understanding are identified, such as the nature and influence on kinetics of an early surface hydrate, the mechanistic origin of the beginning of the acceleration period, the manner in which microscopic growth processes lead to the characteristic morphologies of hydration products at larger length scales, and the role played by diffusion in the deceleration period. The review concludes with some perspectives on research needs for the future.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1208-1223
Number of pages16
JournalCement and Concrete Research
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2011

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Building and Construction
  • General Materials Science


  • Hydration (A)
  • Kinetics (A)
  • Microstructure (B)


Dive into the research topics of 'Mechanisms of cement hydration'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this