Measures of Stereotyping and Prejudice: Barometers of Bias

Susan T. Fiske, Michael S. North

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

37 Scopus citations


Twenty-first century intergroup biases are more automatic, ambivalent, and ambiguous than were old-fashioned biases such as authoritarianism and overt racism, which overtly expressed intergroup hostility. Beyond traditional self-report measures of ethnocentrism and hostile sexism, current measures tap more subtle manifestations of bias. Social dominance orientation assesses beliefs about the desirability of group hierarchies and predicts social attitudes such as ethnocentrism. The stereotype content model maps societal groups' stereotypes, based on perceived social structure, predicting emotional prejudices and discriminatory tendencies. Recent racism measures tap modern policy-related attitude configurations, relatively automatic associations between groups and evaluations, and indirect indicators of intergroup attitudes. Current sexism scales assess modern versions oriented toward policies and an ambivalent version separating benevolence and hostility. Ageism scales measure both modern beliefs and prescriptive ambivalence toward older people. Current measures are less direct than earlier ones, consistent with 21st century patterns.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationMeasures of Personality and Social Psychological Constructs
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages35
ISBN (Electronic)9780123869586
ISBN (Print)9780123869159
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)


  • Ageism
  • Intergroup bias
  • Prejudice
  • Racism
  • Sexism
  • Stereotypes


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