The objective of the present investigation was to test the applicability of particle image velocimetry (PIV), which is normally used for measuring velocities in liquids or gases, to measurement of velocities in granular flow. A second objective was to use PIV to provide experimental data for comparison with mathematical models. The flow of zinc particles, of size 0.4, 0.61 and 0.76mm size, in a flat-bottomed two-dimensional hopper was measured by PIV. The particles were characterized using ASTM procedures for angle of repose, packing density and flow rate through a funnel. Through PIV, velocities and mass flow rates were determined for exit apertures 5 and 7.5 mm in width and 10, 30 and 50 mm long. The bed of particles in the hopper showed the expected stagnant zones on either side of the aperture. There was a continual avalanche of particles at the "V" which forms at the surface of the bed and some images of this avalanche, obtained with a boroscope, are included.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Chemical Engineering(all)
- Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
- Granular flow
- Hopper flow
- Particle flow