Selected results from a multi-institution project entitled "The Role of Biomass in America's Energy Future", which seeks to identify scenarios in which biomass provides a significant fraction of energy services, are presented. Policies that foster this outcome while honoring sustainability and environmental objectives are recommended. Mature processing technology scenarios for cellulosic biomass based on detailed computer (ASPEN) models, including stand-alone production of power, Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels, hydrogen, and co-production scenarios involving ethanol-power, ethanol-power-FT fuels, ethanol-hydrogen, ethanol-FT fuels-natural gas, and several of these products in conjunction with feed protein are presented. Both the overall attractiveness of biomass processing and the attractiveness of several specific product combinations increased markedly when viewed in the context of mature technology as compared to current technology. In particular, some mature processing technology scenarios will have overall efficiency (heating value of products/heating value of biomass) in excess of 70% and be economically competitive with conventional processes based on fossil resources at prices seen over recent years. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the AIChE Annual Meeting and Fall Showcase (Cincinnati, OH 10/30/2005-11/4/2005).