Materials in Organic Electrochemical Transistors for Bioelectronic Applications: Past, Present, and Future

Maximilian Moser, James F. Ponder, Andrew Wadsworth, Alexander Giovannitti, Iain McCulloch

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

137 Scopus citations


Organic electrochemical transistors are bioelectronic devices that exploit the coupled nature of ionic and electronic fluxes to achieve superior transducing abilities compared to conventional organic field effect transistors. In particular, the operation of organic electrochemical transistors relies on a channel material capable of conducting both ionic and electronic charge carriers to ensure bulk electrochemical doping. This review explores the various types of organic semiconductors that are employed as channel materials, with a particular focus on the past 5 years, during which the transducing abilities of organic electrochemical transistors have witnessed an almost tenfold increase. Specifically, the structure–property relationships of the various channel materials employed are investigated, highlighting how device performance can be related to functionality at the molecular level. Finally, an outlook on the field is provided, in particular toward the design guidelines of future materials and the challenges ahead in the field.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1807033
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
Issue number21
StatePublished - May 23 2019
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Chemistry
  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics


  • aqueous compatible polymers
  • bioelectronics
  • organic electrochemical transistors
  • redox active polymers
  • structure–property relationship


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