Mapping of Pro-Equity Interventions Proposed by Immunisation Programs in Gavi Health Systems Strengthening Grants

Joelle Ducharme, Gustavo Caetano Correa, Heidi W. Reynolds, Alyssa B. Sharkey, Virginia A. Fonner, Mira Johri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Reaching zero-dose (ZD) children, operationally defined as children who have not received a first dose of the diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTP1) vaccine, is crucial to increase equitable immunisation coverage and access to primary health care. However, little is known about the approaches already taken by countries to improve immunisation equity. We reviewed all Health System Strengthening (HSS) proposals submitted by Gavi-supported countries from 2014 to 2021 inclusively and extracted information on interventions favouring equity. Pro-equity interventions were mapped to an analytical framework representing Gavi 5.0 programmatic guidance on reaching ZD children and missed communities. Data from keyword searches and manual screening were extracted into an Excel database. Open format responses were analysed using inductive and deductive thematic coding. Data analysis was conducted using Excel and R. Of the 56 proposals included, 51 (91%) included at least one pro-equity intervention. The most common interventions were conducting outreach sessions, tailoring the location of service delivery, and partnerships. Many proposals had “bundles” of interventions, most often involving outreach, microplanning and community-level education activities. Nearly half prioritised remote-rural areas and only 30% addressed gender-related barriers to immunisation. The findings can help identify specific interventions on which to focus future evidence syntheses, case studies and implementation research and inform discussions on what may or may not need to change to better reach ZD children and missed communities moving forward.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number341
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2023
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Drug Discovery
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Pharmacology
  • Immunology


  • equity
  • health systems
  • immunization
  • vaccines
  • zero-dose


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