Low-Resolution Hybrid Beamforming in Millimeter-Wave Multi-User Systems

H. Yu, H. D. Tuan, E. Dutkiewicz, H. V. Poor, L. Hanzo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


A new hybrid amalgam of analog and baseband digital beamforming is conceived for millimeter-wave (mmWave) multi-user networks. The base station is equipped with a large-scale antenna-array, which however relies on a limited number of radio frequency chains for mitigating the severe path-loss of mmWave band transmission. Each user is also equipped with a multi-antenna array. The analog beamformer's weight-resolution is set low for the sake of power efficient implementation. The hybrid beamformer design relies on the novel optimization criterion of directly maximizing the geometric means of users' rates, which is shown to result in fair rate-distributions for the users without imposing a minimum user-rate constraint. Furthermore, new computationally efficient algorithms are developed, which are purely based on closed-form low-complexity expressions. Hence these low-complexity solutions are eminently suitable for large-scale mmWave arrays. Numerical examples are provided for demonstrating their efficiency.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)8941-8955
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 1 2023
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Aerospace Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Automotive Engineering


  • Millimeter-wave communications
  • analog beamforming
  • baseband beamforming
  • hybrid beamforming
  • nonconvex optimization algorithms
  • nonlinear discrete optimization


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