A mutant tryptophan repressor (TrpR) protein containing the substitution of phenylalanine for leucine 75 has been isolated following a genetic screen for temperature-sensitive mutations. Two-dimensional (2D) 1H NMR spectra indicate an overall very similar fold for the purified mutant and wild-type proteins. Circular dichroism spectropolarimetry indicates an increased helix content relative to the wild-type protein, and a slightly higher urea denaturation midpoint for the mutant protein, although there is no difference in thermal stability. Fluorescence spectra indicate a more buried environment for one or both tryptophan residues in the mutant protein. The rate of proton-deuterium exchange-out for the resolved indole ring protons of the two tryptophan residues was quantified from NMR spectra of mutant and wild-type proteins and found to be approximately 50% faster in the wild-type protein. The mutant protein binds the corepressor L-tryptophan (L-Trp) approximately ten times more weakly than does the wild-type protein, but in L-Trp excess its DNA-binding affinity is only two to fivefold weaker. Taken together the results imply that, despite its conservative chemical character and surface location at the C terminus of helix one in the helix-turn-helix DNA recognition motif, this mutational change confers long-range effects on the dynamics of the protein's secondary and tertiary structure without substantially altering its fold, and with relatively minor effects on protein function.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Structural Biology
- Molecular Biology
- Ligand binding
- Protein flexibility