Despite the relative successes in the surgical treatment of pharmacoresistant epilepsy, there is rather little research on the neural (re)organization that potentially subserves behavioral compensation. Here, we examined the post-surgical functional connectivity (FC) in children and adolescents who have undergone unilateral cortical resection and, yet, display remarkably normal behavior. Conventionally, FC has been investigated in terms of the mean correlation of the BOLD time courses extracted from different brain regions. Here, we demonstrated the value of segregating the voxel-wise relationships into mutually exclusive populations that were either positively or negatively correlated. While, relative to controls, the positive correlations were largely normal, negative correlations among networks were increased. Together, our results point to reorganization in the contralesional hemisphere, possibly suggesting competition for cortical territory due to the demand for representation of function. Conceivably, the ubiquitous negative correlations enable the differentiation of function in the reduced cortical volume following a unilateral resection.
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