## Abstract

The paper studies the "Lagrangian temperature" defined through the entropy maximization in the canonical ensemble, which is the negative inverse Lagrangian multiplier corresponding to the constraint of internal energy. The Lagrangian temperature is derived for systems out of thermal equilibrium described by kappa distributions such as space plasmas. The physical meaning of temperature is manifested by the equivalency of two different definitions, that is, through Maxwell's kinetic theory and Clausius' thermodynamics. The equivalency of the two definitions is true either for systems at thermal equilibrium described by Maxwell distributions or for systems out of thermal equilibrium described by kappa distributions, and gives the meaning of the actual temperature, that is, the real or measured temperature. However, the third definition, that of the Lagrangian temperature, coincides with the primary two definitions only at thermal equilibrium, and thus, in the general case of systems out of thermal equilibrium, it does not represent the actual temperature, but it is rather a function of this. The paper derives and examines the exact expression and physical meaning of the Lagrangian temperature, showing that it has essentially different content to what is commonly thought. This is achieved by: (i) maximizing the entropy in the continuous description of energy within the general framework of non-extensive statistical mechanics, (ii) using the concept of the "N-particle" kappa distribution, which is governed by a special kappa index that is invariant of the degrees of freedom and the number of particles, and (iii) determining the appropriate scales of length and speed involved in the phase-space microstates. Finally, the paper demonstrates the behavior of the Lagrangian against the actual temperature in various datasets of space plasmas.

Original language | English (US) |
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Pages (from-to) | 4290-4308 |

Number of pages | 19 |

Journal | Entropy |

Volume | 16 |

Issue number | 8 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - Aug 2014 |

Externally published | Yes |

## All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

- General Physics and Astronomy

## Keywords

- Kappa distributions
- Space plasmas
- Temperature