Laboratory layered latte

Nan Xue, Sepideh Khodaparast, Lailai Zhu, Janine K. Nunes, Hyoungsoo Kim, Howard A. Stone

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Scopus citations

Abstract

Inducing thermal gradients in fluid systems with initial, well-defined density gradients results in the formation of distinct layered patterns, such as those observed in the ocean due to double-diffusive convection. In contrast, layered composite fluids are sometimes observed in confined systems of rather chaotic initial states, for example, lattes formed by pouring espresso into a glass of warm milk. Here, we report controlled experiments injecting a fluid into a miscible phase and show that, above a critical injection velocity, layering emerges over a time scale of minutes. We identify critical conditions to produce the layering, and relate the results quantitatively to double-diffusive convection. Based on this understanding, we show how to employ this single-step process to produce layered structures in soft materials, where the local elastic properties vary step-wise along the length of the material.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1960
JournalNature communications
Volume8
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2017

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

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    Xue, N., Khodaparast, S., Zhu, L., Nunes, J. K., Kim, H., & Stone, H. A. (2017). Laboratory layered latte. Nature communications, 8(1), [1960]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-017-01852-2