KOI-142, the king of transit variations, is a pair of planets near the 2:1 resonance

David Nesvorný, David Kipping, Dirk Terrell, Joel Hartman, Gáspár Á Bakos, Lars A. Buchhave

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

53 Scopus citations

Abstract

The transit timing variations (TTVs) can be used as a diagnostic of gravitational interactions between planets in a multi-planet system. Many Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) exhibit significant TTVs, but KOI-142.01 stands out among them with an unrivaled ≃12 hr TTV amplitude. Here we report a thorough analysis of KOI-142.01's transits. We discover periodic transit duration variations (TDVs) of KOI-142.01 that are nearly in phase with the observed TTVs. We show that KOI-142.01's TTVs and TDVs uniquely detect a non-transiting companion with a mass ≃0.63 that of Jupiter (KOI-142c). KOI-142.01's mass inferred from the transit variations is consistent with the measured transit depth, suggesting a Neptune-class planet (KOI-142b). The orbital period ratio Pc /Pb = 2.03 indicates that the two planets are just wide of the 2:1 resonance. The present dynamics of this system, characterized here in detail, can be used to test various formation theories that have been proposed to explain the near-resonant pairs of exoplanets.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number3
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume777
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2013

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Keywords

  • planetary systems

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    Nesvorný, D., Kipping, D., Terrell, D., Hartman, J., Bakos, G. Á., & Buchhave, L. A. (2013). KOI-142, the king of transit variations, is a pair of planets near the 2:1 resonance. Astrophysical Journal, 777(1), [3]. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/777/1/3