Kant, real possibility, and the threat of Spinoza

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35 Scopus citations


In the first part of the paper I reconstruct Kant's proof of the existence of a 'most real being' while also highlighting the theory of modality that motivates Kant's departure from Leibniz's version of the proof. I go on to argue that it is precisely this departure that makes the being that falls out of the pre-critical proof look more like Spinoza's extended natura naturans than an independent, personal creator-God. In the critical period, Kant seems to think that transcendental idealism allows him to avoid this conclusion, but in the last section of the paper I argue that there is still one important version of the Spinozistic threat that remains.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)635-675
Number of pages41
Issue number483
StatePublished - Jul 2012
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Philosophy


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