Isolation of sea squirt (Ciona) gametes, fertilization, dechorionation, and development

Lionel Christiaen, Eileen Wagner, Weiyang Shi, Michael Levine

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

48 Scopus citations


This protocol is the starting point for most manipulations that are used to study the sea squirt (Ciona) embryo, including in situ hybridization, the microinjection of morpholino oligos, and the electroporation of transgenic DNAs. Ciona eggs and embryos are exquisitely sensitive to even trate amounts of detergent; therefore, it is strongly advised to designate a soap-free workspace for embryo culture. Any solutions that come into contact with embryos should be prepared in absolutely clean glassware with the highest quality water.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalCold Spring Harbor Protocols
Issue number12
StatePublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology


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