## Abstract

Randomized algorithms and protocols assume the availability of a perfect source of randomness. In real life, however, perfect randomness is rare and is almost never guaranteed. The gap between these two facts motivated much of the work on randomness and derandomization in theoretical computer science. In this work, we define a new type of randomized algorithms (and protocols), that we call robustly-randomized algorithms (protocols). Such algorithms have access to two separate (read-once) random strings. The first string is trusted to be perfectly random, but its length is bounded by some parameter k = k(n) (where n is the length of the input). We think of k as relatively small, say sub-linear or poly-logarithmic in n. The second string is of unbounded length and is assumed to be random, but its randomness is not trusted. The output of the algorithm is either an output in the set of possible outputs of the problem, or a special symbol, interpreted as do not know and denoted by −. On every input for the algorithm, the output of the algorithm must satisfy the following two requirements: 1. If the second random string is perfectly random then the algorithm must output the correct answer with high probability. 2. If the second random string is an arbitrary string, even adversarially chosen after seeing the input, the algorithm must output with high probability either the correct answer or the special symbol −. We discuss relations of this new definition to several previously studied notions in randomness and derandomization. For example, when considering polynomial-time algorithms, if k is logarithmic we get the complexity class ZPP, while if k is unbounded we get the complexity class BPP, and for a general k, the algorithm can be viewed as an interactive proof with a probabilistic polynomial-time prover and a probabilistic polynomial-time verifier, where the prover is allowed an unlimited number of random bits and the verifier is limited to at most k random bits. Every previously-studied class of randomized algorithms or protocols, and more generally, every previous use of randomness in theoretical computer science, can be revisited and redefined in light of our new definition, by replacing each random string with a pair of random strings, the first is trusted to be perfectly random but is relatively short and the second is of unlimited length but its randomness is not trusted. The main question that we ask is: In which settings and for which problems is the untrusted random string helpful? Our main technical observation is that every problem in the class BPL (of problems solvable by bounded-error randomized logspace algorithms) can be solved by a robustly-randomized logspace algorithm with k = O(log n), that is with just a logarithmic number of trusted random bits. We also give query complexity separations that show cases where the untrusted random string is provenly helpful. Specifically, we show that there are promise problems that can be solved by robustly-randomized protocols with only one query and just a logarithmic number of trusted random bits, whereas any randomized protocol requires either a linear number of random bits or an exponential number of queries, and any zero-error randomized protocol requires a polynomial number of queries.

Original language | English (US) |
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Title of host publication | 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference, ITCS 2023 |

Editors | Yael Tauman Kalai |

Publisher | Schloss Dagstuhl- Leibniz-Zentrum fur Informatik GmbH, Dagstuhl Publishing |

ISBN (Electronic) | 9783959772631 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - Jan 1 2023 |

Event | 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference, ITCS 2023 - Cambridge, United States Duration: Jan 10 2023 → Jan 13 2023 |

### Publication series

Name | Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics, LIPIcs |
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Volume | 251 |

ISSN (Print) | 1868-8969 |

### Conference

Conference | 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference, ITCS 2023 |
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Country/Territory | United States |

City | Cambridge |

Period | 1/10/23 → 1/13/23 |

## All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

- Software

## Keywords

- BPL
- BPP
- Randomness
- Untrusted
- Verifiable
- ZPL
- ZPP