Ion Pair Uptake in Ion Gel Devices Based on Organic Mixed Ionic–Electronic Conductors

Tyler J. Quill, Garrett LeCroy, Armantas Melianas, Dakota Rawlings, Quentin Thiburce, Rajendar Sheelamanthula, Christina Cheng, Yaakov Tuchman, Scott T. Keene, Iain McCulloch, Rachel A. Segalman, Michael L. Chabinyc, Alberto Salleo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Scopus citations


In organic mixed ionic–electronic conductors (OMIECs), it is critical to understand the motion of ions in the electrolyte and OMIEC. Generally, the focus is on the movement of net charge during gating, and the motion of neutral anion–cation pairs is seldom considered. Uptake of mobile ion pairs by the semiconductor before electrochemical gating (passive uptake) can be advantageous as this can improve device speed, and both ions can participate in charge compensation during gating. Here, such passive ion pair uptake in high-speed solid-state devices is demonstrated using an ion gel electrolyte. This is compared to a polymerized ionic liquid (PIL) electrolyte to understand how ion pair uptake affects device characteristics. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the passive uptake of ion pairs from the ion gel into the OMIEC is detected, whereas no uptake is observed with a PIL electrolyte. This is corroborated by X-ray scattering, which reveals morphological changes to the OMIEC from the uptake of ion pairs. With in situ Raman, a reorganization of both anions and cations is then observed during gating. Finally, the speed and retention of OMIEC-based neuromorphic devices are tuned by controlling the freedom of charge motion in the electrolyte.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2104301
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
Issue number47
StatePublished - Nov 18 2021
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • General Chemistry
  • Biomaterials
  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrochemistry


  • artificial synapses
  • ionic liquid intercalation
  • mixed conductors
  • organic semiconductors


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