Inverted organic solar cells with sol-gel processed high work-function vanadium oxide hole-extraction layers

Kirill Zilberberg, Sara Trost, Jens Meyer, Antoine Kahn, Andreas Behrendt, Dirk Lützenkirchen-Hecht, Ronald Frahm, Thomas Riedl

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

224 Scopus citations


For large-scale and high-throughput production of organic solar cells (OSCs), liquid processing of the functional layers is desired. We demonstrate inverted bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells (OSCs) with a sol-gel derived V 2O 5 hole-extraction-layer on top of the active organic layer. The V 2O 5 layers are prepared in ambient air using Vanadium(V)-oxitriisopropoxide as precursor. Without any post-annealing or plasma treatment, a high work function of the V 2O 5 layers is confirmed by both Kelvin probe analysis and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). Using UPS and inverse photoelectron spectroscopy (IPES), we show that the electronic structure of the solution processed V 2O 5 layers is similar to that of thermally evaporated V 2O 5 layers which have been exposed to ambient air. Optimization of the sol gel process leads to inverted OSCs with solution based V 2O 5 layers that show power conversion efficiencies similar to that of control devices with V 2O 5 layers prepared in high-vacuum.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4776-4783
Number of pages8
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
Issue number24
StatePublished - Dec 20 2011

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • General Chemistry
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • General Materials Science
  • Electrochemistry
  • Biomaterials


  • high work-function materials
  • inverted organic solar cells
  • solution processed metal oxide
  • vanadium oxide


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