Intrusion of a liquid droplet into a hexagonal close-packed array of spheres under gravity is investigated using analytical methods and volume-of-fluid simulations. Four regimes of ultimate fluid behavior are identified: (A) no liquid imbibition into the bed, (B) trapping of liquid high in the bed, (C) liquid descending to the bottom of the bed, and (D) liquid spreading around the surface of all particles. These regimes are mapped based on the contact angle and Bond number of the system. Many aspects of the dynamics and ultimate liquid behavior are captured using a simplified model of a mass of liquid moving under gravity in a vertical capillary of undulating cross-sectional area. This simplified model is used to form momentum transport equations with four forms of nondimensional time, which are shown to collapse the simulation data with different fluid parameters in different regimes.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Surfaces and Interfaces