Introducing the Online Political Influence Efforts dataset

Diego A. Martin, Jacob N. Shapiro, Julia G. Ilhardt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


This article introduces a dataset on the covert use of social media to influence politics by promoting propaganda, advocating controversial viewpoints, and spreading disinformation. Influence efforts (IEs) are defined as: (i) coordinated campaigns by a state, or the ruling party in an autocracy, to impact one or more specific aspects of politics at home or in another state, (ii) through media channels, including social media, by (iii) producing content designed to appear indigenous to the target state. Our data draw on more than 1,000 media reports and 500 research articles/reports to identify IEs, track their progress, and classify their features. The data cover 78 foreign influence efforts (FIEs) and 25 domestic influence efforts (DIEs) – in which governments targeted their own citizens – against 51 different countries from 2011 through early 2021. The Influence Effort dataset measures covert information campaigns by state actors, facilitating research on contemporary statecraft.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)868-876
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Peace Research
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Safety Research
  • Political Science and International Relations


  • disinformation
  • foreign influence
  • political influence operation
  • social media


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