Influence of Solvent Coordination on Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Formation

J. Clay Hamill, Jeffrey Schwartz, Yueh Lin Loo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

281 Scopus citations


Solution-processed hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOIPs) from organoammonium halide and lead halide precursors form efficacious active layers for photovoltaics, light-emitting diodes, and flexible electronics. Though solvent-solute coordination plays a critical role in HOIP crystallization, the influence of solvent choice on such interactions is poorly understood. We demonstrate Gutmann's donor number, DN, as a parameter that indicates the coordinating ability of the processing solvent with the Pb2+ center of the lead halide precursor. Low DN solvents interact weakly with the Pb2+ center, favoring instead complexation between Pb2+ and iodide and subsequent crystallization of perovskite. High DN solvents coordinate more strongly with the Pb2+ center, which in turn inhibits iodide coordination and stalls perovskite crystallization. Varying the concentration of high-DN additives in precursor solutions tunes the strength of lead-solvent interactions, allowing finer control over the crystallization and the resulting morphology of HOIP active layers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)92-97
Number of pages6
JournalACS Energy Letters
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 12 2018

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Materials Chemistry


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